Technical articles

Additional performance measures
For many years, regulators and standard-setters have debated how entities should best present financial performance and not mislead the user. 

Bin the clutter
The effects of clutter have typically come in for little consideration by the preparers of annual reports. However, the phenomenon is increasingly under discussion, with initiatives recently launched to combat it.

Business Combinations – IFRS 3 (Revised)
This article provides an introduction to IFRS® 3 and IAS® 27, including piecemeal acquisitions and disposals.

Using the business model of a company to help analyse its performance
Understanding the business model of an entity is helpful in analysing and communicating the essence of a business, and for predicting the implications of a change in circumstance on a business.

Concepts of profit or loss and other comprehensive income
This article explains the current rules and the conceptual debate as to where in the statement of comprehensive income, profits and losses should be recognised – ie when should they be recognised in profit or loss and when in the other comprehensive income. Further, it explores the debate as to whether it is appropriate to recognise profits or losses twice.

The Conceptual Framework
In March 2018, the International Accounting Standards Board finished its revision of The Framework for Financial Reporting.

Digital tokens are built on a distributed ledger infrastructure often referred to as a blockchain. These tokens can provide various rights. Cryptocurrency is a type of digital token, and is designed as a medium of exchange. Other digital tokens provide rights to use assets or services, or can represent ownership interests.

Deferred tax
This article considers the aspects of deferred tax that are relevant to the Financial Reporting exam before moving on to the more complicated situations that may be tested in the Strategic Business Reporting exam.

Giving investors what they need
This article looks at how reporting capital structure is challenging, but markets are keen for the information.

IAS 21 – does it need amending?
This article examines the issues raised by IASB research that referred to a KASB study into whether IAS 21 needs amending.

IFRS 2, Share-based Payment
International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS®) 2, Share-based Payment, applies when a company acquires or receives goods and services for equity-based payment. 

IFRS 9, Financial Instruments
IFRS® 9, Financial Instruments represents the outcome of work to date undertaken by the International Accounting Standards Board (the Board) in conjunction with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the US to improve and converge financial reporting standards. 

IFRS 13, Fair Value Measurement
IFRS 13 has required a significant amount of work by entities to simply understand the nature of the principles and concepts involved.

A focus on the International Financial Reporting Standard for small to medium-sized entities.

Impairment of financial assets
This article considers the International Accounting Standards Board’s proposals of new regulations for the impairment of financial assets.

Impairment of goodwill
This article discusses and shows both ways of measuring goodwill following the acquisition of a subsidiary, and how each measurement of goodwill is subject to an impairment review.

This article considers the relevance of information provided by different measurement methods and explains the effect that they may have on the financial statements.

Profit, loss and other comprehensive income
This article looks at what differentiates profit or loss from other comprehensive income and where items should be presented.

Revenue revisited
This two-part article considers the application of IFRS 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers using the five-step model. 

The Sustainable Development Goals
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals tackling major world issues agreed by 193 UN member states to be achieved by 2030. These goals include zero hunger, decent work and economic growth, and reduced inequalities.

The definition and disclosure of capital
This article is structured in two parts – first, it considers what might be included as the capital of a company and, second, why this distinction is important for the analysis of financial information.

The integrated report framework
In 2013, the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) released a framework for integrated reporting. The framework establishes principles and concepts that govern the overall content of an integrated report.

When does debt seem to be equity?
The difference between debt and equity in an entity’s statement of financial position is not easy to distinguish for preparers of financial statements. Many financial instruments have both features with the result that this can lead to inconsistency of reporting.

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Study support videos

September 2018 question debrief videos
Watch the following videos to hear an expert tutor debriefing a series of questions from the September 2018 SBR exam:

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Exam techniques

How to approach Strategic Business Reporting
To study Strategic Business Reporting effectively you need to understand the nature of the exam and what you will be asked to do.

Stepping up from Financial Reporting
It’s important to understand how your previous Financial Reporting studies relate to the Strategic Business Reporting exam. What knowledge is assumed? How does Strategic Business Reporting differ from previous financial reporting exams that you may have taken? 

Passing Strategic Professional exams
This article looks at what you can do to improve your chances of passing ACCA’s Strategic Professional exams.

Exam techniques for success
What does a good Strategic Business Reporting answer look like? How do I achieve that? In this article we examine these two closely-linked questions in order to provide you with a checklist of factors that contribute towards a good answer and techniques that can be employed to achieve them. Together with good technical knowledge, these techniques will put you at the front of the queue when it comes to gaining a pass in SBR.

Examples of a change in approach
The specimen exam and the examiner’s approach article (which should be read in conjunction with this article) illustrate and explain how Strategic Business Reporting differs from P2, Corporate Reporting. This article has been written to provide you with more insight into the styles of question that may be asked.

Read the mind of the SBR marker – part 1
Read the mind of the SBR marker – part 2
Get a real insight into the mind of the Strategic Business Reporting marker and an understanding of what they will be looking for when they mark SBR scripts.

Recommended approach to Section B of the SBR exam
This article gives candidates an insight into the thinking of the SBR examining team when setting Section B of the SBR exam.

How to earn professional marks
This article explains what professional marks are, how they are awarded at the Strategic Professional level and to remind potential candidates how best to achieve these additional, and often crucial, marks.

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