Technical articles

Technical articles

Cash flow statements
This article considers the statement of cash flows of which it assumes no prior knowledge and explains how to calculate cash flows and where those cash flows are presented in the statement of cash flows.

This article considers the application of IFRS 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers and the impact it will have on accounting for prompt payment discounts.

Preparing a consolidated statement of financial position
This article provides a brief overview.

Preparing simple consolidated financial statements 
This article focuses on some of the main principles of consolidated financial statements that a Paper FA/FFA candidate must be able to understand and provides examples of how they may be tested in multiple-choice questions.

Process for preparing financial statements
Relevant from September 2023
This article should be read in conjunction with the article ‘Computerised accounting systems – rationale for change’ (see 'Related links'), which details ACCA’s reasons for amending the FA1, FA2 and FFA/FA syllabuses to replace references to manual, paper-based accounting systems with computerised accounting systems from September 2023.

Sales and purchases in a computerised accounting system
Relevant from September 2023
This article explores a simple sale/purchase transaction and considers how the accounting records would be updated for each entity in the transaction.

Supplier statement reconciliations
Relevant from September 2023
This article discusses the reasons for maintaining accurate records of transactions with individual suppliers and outlines how reconciliations can be used to identify errors in accounting records.

Suspense accounts and error correction
Relevant from September 2023
Studying the errors outlined in this article will help you to understand which errors affect the suspense account.

Trade receivables and revenue
Relevant from September 2023
This article looks at trade receivables, which arise when a business makes sales or provides a service on credit.

Adjustments to financial statements
Relevant from September 2023
How to treat the main possible post trial balance adjustments.

Computerised accounting and the auditor – connecting the dots
Relevant from September 2023
From September 2023, Financial Accounting (FA) has increased its coverage of computerised accounting systems and so the context of the examination has changed to incorporate this.

Exam technique

How to prepare for on-demand computer-based exams

This article will guide you on the skills and exam techniques required in preparing for on-demand CBEs.

Examiner's guidance: FA/FFA exam structure
The exam format for FA/FFA for the computer-based exam comprises two sections: Section A containing 35 objective questions for two marks each and Section B containing two multi-task questions for 15 marks each.

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