Fundamental ethical and professional principles (A)

Accounting ethics in the digital age
This article looks at a variety of ethical threats that a contemporary accountant working in the digital age may encounter and considers how these threats might be addressed.

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The financial reporting framework (B)

Concepts of profit or loss and other comprehensive income
This article explains the current rules and the conceptual debate as to where in the statement of comprehensive income, profits and losses should be recognised – ie when should they be recognised in profit or loss and when in the other comprehensive income. Further, it explores the debate as to whether it is appropriate to recognise profits or losses twice.

Profit, loss and other comprehensive income
This article looks at what differentiates profit or loss from other comprehensive income and where items should be presented.

The Conceptual Framework
In March 2018, the International Accounting Standards Board finished its revision of The Framework for Financial Reporting.

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Reporting the financial performance of a range of entities (C)

Deferred tax
This article considers the aspects of deferred tax that are relevant to the Financial Reporting exam before moving on to the more complicated situations that may be tested in the Strategic Business Reporting exam.

IFRS 2, Share-based Payment
International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS®) 2, Share-based Payment, applies when a company acquires or receives goods and services for equity-based payment. 

IFRS 9, Financial Instruments
IFRS® 9, Financial Instruments represents the outcome of work to date undertaken by the International Accounting Standards Board (the Board) in conjunction with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the US to improve and converge financial reporting standards. 

IFRS 13, Fair Value Measurement
IFRS 13 has required a significant amount of work by entities to simply understand the nature of the principles and concepts involved

Impairment of financial assets
This article considers the International Accounting Standards Board’s proposals of new regulations for the impairment of financial assets.

Measurement
This article considers the relevance of information provided by different measurement methods and explains the effect that they may have on the financial statements.

Revenue revisited
This two-part article considers the application of IFRS 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers using the five-step model.

When does debt seem to be equity?
The difference between debt and equity in an entity’s statement of financial position is not easy to distinguish for preparers of financial statements. Many financial instruments have both features with the result that this can lead to inconsistency of reporting.

Cryptocurrencies
Digital tokens are built on a distributed ledger infrastructure often referred to as a blockchain. These tokens can provide various rights. Cryptocurrency is a type of digital token, and is designed as a medium of exchange. Other digital tokens provide rights to use assets or services, or can represent ownership interests.

 

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Financial statements of groups of entities (D)

Business Combinations – IFRS 3 (Revised)
This article provides an introduction to IFRS® 3 and IAS® 27, including piecemeal acquisitions and disposals.

Impairment of goodwill
This article discusses and shows both ways of measuring goodwill following the acquisition of a subsidiary, and how each measurement of goodwill is subject to an impairment review.

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Interpret financial statements for different stakeholders (E)

Additional performance measures
For many years, regulators and standard-setters have debated how entities should best present financial performance and not mislead the user. 

Giving investors what they need
This article looks at how reporting capital structure is challenging, but markets are keen for the information.

The integrated report framework
In 2013, the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) released a framework for integrated reporting. The framework establishes principles and concepts that govern the overall content of an integrated report.

Using the business model of a company to help analyse its performance
Understanding the business model of an entity is helpful in analysing and communicating the essence of a business, and for predicting the implications of a change in circumstance on a business.

 

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The impact of changes and potential changes in accounting regulation (F)

Bin the clutter
The effects of clutter have typically come in for little consideration by the preparers of annual reports. However, the phenomenon is increasingly under discussion, with initiatives recently launched to combat it.

IAS 21 – does it need amending?
This article examines the issues raised by IASB research that referred to a KASB study into whether IAS 21 needs amending.

The definition and disclosure of capital
This article is structured in two parts – first, it considers what might be included as the capital of a company and, second, why this distinction is important for the analysis of financial information.

The Sustainable Development Goals
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals tackling major world issues agreed by 193 UN member states to be achieved by 2030. These goals include zero hunger, decent work and economic growth, and reduced inequalities.

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Technical articles on multiple syllabus sections

Crowdfunding and impairment of financial instruments
This article addresses the application of accounting principles in contemporary contexts (an exam technique issue) and the impairment of financial instruments (a technical knowledge issue).

Business combinations, share-based payments and accounting considerations of a pandemic or natural disaster
This article identifies the kinds of 'control' issues that candidates should be considering when constructing their response to such exam questions. It also reflects upon how share-based payments should be accounted for when they are made as part of the purchase consideration for a subsidiary in a business combination. Finally, it uses the Covid-19 pandemic as a context within which to consider what IFRS standards might be applicable to reporting entities and why.

Asset ceiling test (IAS 19), initial coin offerings, non-GAAP, and non-financial performance measures
This article discusses the asset ceiling test in IAS 19, Employee Benefits, and explains how many IFRS standards and principles might be relevant to an accounting issue for which there is no existing IFRS standard (in this case Initial Coin Offering (ICO)). Finally, it examines some non-financial performance measures that have been reported in practice in a global digital entity.

Onerous lease contracts and impairments, and investor issues
This article addresses the technical matter of onerous lease contracts and their impairment and then considers two types of approach to SBR exam questions: (i) investors issues in SBR questions and (ii) the application of knowledge to SBR question scenarios.

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