Preparing a group statement of financial position

This brief article looks at how to prepare a group statement of
financial position

Assets and liabilities

When preparing a group statement of financial position the assets and liabilities of the parent and the subsidiary are subject to consolidation adjustments and then added together. For example, as the objective of the exercise is to prepare the group statement of financial position as if the group were a single entity, it is necessary to eliminate the balances on any intra-group current accounts as the group should only be reporting assets and liabilities external to the group. In addition it is also necessary to recognise any fair value adjustments (FV) that will have arisen on the subsidiary’s net assets at the date on acquisition and to replace the parent’s investment in the subsidiary with the goodwill arising on consolidation.

Equity

In the FA exam, the equity section of the group statement of financial position will contain the share capital and share premium of the parent only. It may also be necessary to ascertain the correct balance on the retained earnings. This will include the parents retained earnings and the groups share of the  post-acquisition profits of the subsidiary. The post-acquisition profits of the subsidiary will be shared between the parent (in the group retained earnings) and non-controlling interest (NCI) in the proportion that they share profits and losses.

The following example explains the whole process by taking you through an exercise where all of these issues feature.

Question
Two years ago Singapore paid $90,000 for a controlling interest of 80% in the Marina Bay’s equity when the retained earnings were $25,000. The summarised statement of financial positions at the reporting date are as follows:

 Singapore
$
Marina Bay
$

Investment in Marina Bay

90,000

 

Property plant & equipment

30,000

30,000

Current assets

30,000

30,000

 

150,000

60,000

   

Equity shares

25,000

15,000

Retained earnings

100,000

40,000

 

125,000

55,000

Liabilities

25,000

5,000

 

150,000

60,000

Additional information
(i)
. At the date of acquisition the fair value of the NCI of Marina Bay was measured at $20,000
(ii). For consolidation purposes at the date of acquisition the fair value of the non-depreciable land of Marina Bay exceeded its carrying value by $25,000. Marina Bay has not incorporated this fair value adjustments into its individual financial statements.
(iii). At the reporting date Singapore is owed $5,000 by Marina Bay. 

Required – Prepare the Singapore group statement of financial position.


Answer
In approaching such a question there are regular workings that have to be processed. It is necessary to establish the post-acquisition profits of the subsidiary (which are then split between the group and the NCI), the goodwill arising on acquisition as well as the closing balances of the NCI and group retained earnings. It is a good habit to first prepare a working showing the group structure to ensure that we have noted the parent's and the NCI's interest in the subsidiary’s profits and how long the subsidiary has been a member of the group. 
 

W1 Group structure

 

Singapore (the parent)

 

Two years ago

80% / 20% NCI

 

Marina Bay
(the subsidiary)

 

In the next working the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary at the date of acquisition are established by taking into account the fair value adjustment on the land. The post-acquisition profits of the subsidiary are also determined and split between parent and the NCI in the proportion of their shareholdings. The net assets of the subsidiary are represented by its equity (share capital plus all reserves). Note that the subsidiary's net assets at the date of acquisition need a fair value adjustment on its PPE. This adjustment is still necessary at the reporting date as the asset is still held.


W2 Net assets of the subsidiary

 

At
acquisition
$

At
reporting
date
$

Post-
acquisition
$

Equity shares

15,000

15,000

 

Retained earnings

25,000

40,000

15,000

Book value of the
net assets

40,000

55,000

 

Fair value adjustment
on PPE

25,000

25,000

 

Fair value of the
net assets

65,000

70,000

 

From this we can see the subsidiary’s post-acquisition profits are $15,000. These belong to, and so are allocated, 80% to the group’s retained earnings and 20% to the NCI. Further we can note that the net assets of the subsidiary at acquisition is $65,000. This is a key figure for the calculation of goodwill which is our next working. In some questions the fair value of the net assets at acquisition might be given (in this case $65,000) and, so, the FV on the land ($25,000) is ascertained as a balancing figure in the net assets at acquisition column.

Now the goodwill (the premium arising on consolidation) can be ascertained by comparing the value of the whole business as represented by what the parent paid for its controlling interest combined with the NCI, set against the fair value of the identifiable net assets of the subsidiary.


W3 Goodwill  

 

$

FV of Parent's investment at acquisition – the controlling interest

90,000

NCI @ FV at acquisition – the non-controlling interest

20,000

FV of Net assets at acquisition (w2)

(65,000)

Goodwill arising on consolidation

45,000

The next working is to determine the NCI at the reporting date. This is done by taking account of the entries that we have already seen above. NCI is part of equity (the ownership) of the group and so the opening balance at the date of acquisition will increase with its share of any profits and decrease with any share of losses.


W4 NCI

 

$

Opening balance w3

20,000

Plus NCI% of post-acquisition profit (20% x 15,000) w2

3,000

 

23,000

Our final working is the retained earnings of the group which comprises the parent’s retained earnings plus its share of the subsidiary’s post-acquisition profits and losses from the above workings.


W5 Group retained earnings (RE)

 

$

Parent

100,000

Plus the % of post-acquisition profit (80% x 15,000) w2

12,000

 

112,000

Finally the group statement of financial position can be prepared. The parent’s investment in the subsidiary is eliminated as an intra-group item and is replaced with the goodwill. The assets and liabilities are then added together in full, as despite the parent only owning 80% of the shares of the subsidiary, the subsidiary is fully controlled. The non-controlling interest in the subsidiary’s net assets is separately reported. There is a consolidation adjustment in respect of the fair value adjustment on the PPE.

Because at the reporting date Singapore is owed $5,000 by Marina Bay this is an intra-group item and this receivable is eliminated from the group accounts as a consolidation adjustment. It also means that Marina Bay will have a payable to Singapore of the same amount which will also be eliminated as a consolidation adjustment.


Singapore group statement of financial position

 

 

$

Goodwill

w3

45,000

Property plant & equipment  

(30,000 + 30,000 + fair value
adjustment 25,000)

85,000

Current assets

(30,000 + 30,000 less 5,000
inter-company)

55,000

 

 

185,000

 

 

 

Equity shares

(Parent only)

25,000

Retained earnings

w5

112,000

NCI

w4

23,000

Equity

 

160,000

Liabilities

(25,000 + 5,000 less 5,000
intra-group)

25,000

 

 

185,000

Note where the NCI is presented – it is part of equity and should never be presented in liabilities.
 

Tom Clendon is a lecturer at FTMS based in Singapore and is the author of the second edition of A Student's Guide to Group Accounts (published by Kaplan Publishing)